Goodbye, Constantinople, welcome to Istanbul!

Unlike the first two stages of Ethereum, Frontier and Homestead-Metropolis were divided into two parts: the Byzantine hard fork and the Constantinople hard fork. According to the official blog post, at the end of this phase, Ethereum released a relatively full-featured user interface for non-technical users.

Ethereum unit award dropped from 5 ETH to 3 ETH

Byzantine hardfork was one of the softer updates and Ethereum [EIP] presented eight protocols to develop. All these protocols took place in October 2017 at the block numbered 4.370.000. The most important feature of the upgrade was the delay of the hash bomb, which dropped the unit award from 5 ETH to 3 ETH.

However, Constantinople, the second stage of Metropolis he faced several obstacles resulting in his relocation to history. This update was also one of the most anticipated in the Ethereum community. The first proposal for the update consisted of five protocols to improve Ethereum; the main emphasis again focused on delaying the hash rate and reducing the block reward from 3 ETH to 2 ETH.

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the new date was certain

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Last hard fork took place on February 28, 2019

Ropsten Testnet Due to problems encountered during the Constantinople hard fork, the update was postponed once. Second, it was discovered that one of the proposed amelioration protocols led to the Reentrancy attack. This time, the hard fork was postponed to February 2019.

The team to solve the vulnerability problem, the two fixed forks Constantinople and the two in the same block. He decided to St. Petersburg. In this initial update, all five proposed protocols will be applied and in the second update, the EIP routing method will be disabled or the update will be dropped. Later, the members of the Foundation announced the good news of the good news, which took place on February 28, 2019.

 Ethereum's Constantinople hard forku was postponed due to the DoS attack!

Welcome to Istanbul! it is preparing for the next hard fork that will take place in about eight months. According to reports, this hard fork may also include a proposal for Constantinople and all recommendations for Istanbul will be collected until May 2019.

In July 2019, a soft implementation of Istanbul's compliance for all Ethereum customers will be implemented. and in August 2019 Testnet will be updated. Finally, the hard fork is expected to be fully operational in October 2019.

Other updates on the Pipeline

Other updates to the team, as well as Istanbul, are Ethereum 2.0 or Serenity and the last stage

ProgPow, also known as Programmatic Work Proof, is the update expected by Ethereum mining communities. It is said that this practice has reduced control over ASIC miners and has supported the mining division


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