The creation of a panorama is no longer difficult, as the majority of the work is done by software. You should still pay attention to one or the other detail. So the pivot point is important in the series of exposures. If you look at a flower in front of a mountain – first with one eye, then with the other – then the flower in the second picture will be shifted in relation to the mountain. A parallax error has arisen. This error also occurs when panning the camera and makes the work of the stitching software more difficult. The error only disappears when the center of the entrance pupil of the objective is chosen as the pivot point. In English, this point is conclusively called No-Parallax Point, in German the terms nodal point or junction point have become commonplace. You can easily measure the exact position of the nodal point yourself or look it up in a database.
For complex panoramas with a large depth, a special nodal point adapter is typically used to ensure that the camera is rotated exactly at the point in question.
The camera must be tilted if the height of the field of view of the lens used is less than 180 °. This is the case for all conventional lenses, the only exception being the so-called fisheye lenses. With such a lens, used in full format, it is actually possible to have a complete all-round view including zenith (the point vertically above the camera) and nadir (the point opposite the zenith) with only two images (with three images overlapping). This not only makes panoramas much faster, but also of better quality, because the number of stitching errors also depends on the number of shots.
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