One of the ultimate aims of modern physics is to make the superconducting materials, in which electricity flows with zero resistance, to operate at room temperature. Although progress has been slow, scientists have made an unexpected breakthrough in 2018: a new kind of superconductor
First of all, let's understand what is superconductor. Normally when we turn on a light in the house, the electricity passes through the cables in the wall very quickly but there are very serious losses. In other words, this situation is not efficient at all. Electricity is carried by electrons that multiply the atoms through the material through which it passes, and in each collision they lose some of their energy. This is the reason why electricity networks lose 7 percent of their electricity.
In addition, when some materials are cooled to very very low temperatures, something that is not normal happens: the electrons become pairs and begin to flow without resistance. This phenomenon, called super conductivity, is important enough to revolutionize electricity. So, it can reduce the loss to almost zero and increase productivity to 100%.
The good news is that many items have this feature. Even now, MR devices and maglev trains are used in Japan. The bad news is that it's pretty expensive to make that substance super-conductive. Unfortunately, it is not possible to use super conductors anywhere due to this process, which also requires bulky equipment.
The Scientist: Katie Bouman
Researchers, under the leadership of the University of Maryland in 2018, observed a new kind of superconductivity while investigating an exotic material at super-cold temperatures. Not only did this superconductivity appear in an unexpected material, it seemed to be based on electron interactions that were so different from the matches we've seen so far. This means we don't understand what the potential of this material is.
To understand the difference, the electrons have an interaction called "Spin quantum". As you may recall in high school, the number of spin quantum in standard superconductors is 1/2. But the quantum number of spin that is discovered and referred to as YPtBi is 3/2
Physicist and senior writer Johnpierre Paglione said, "No one had thought that it was possible in solid materials," and he continued his words as follows: When these atoms combine and solidify, they are usually broken and a 1/2 spin remains in your hand. "
It was discovered a few years ago that YPtBi was superconductor. In fact, this situation was surprising in itself because this material did not comply with the main rule of superconductivity: normal conductivity, but with normal electrons.
According to the traditional theory, YPtBi is superconducting at temperatures below 0,8 Kelvin. about a thousand times more needed mobile electronics. But when the researchers cooled the material, they still encountered superconductivity.
In order to understand what was going on here, researchers examined the way material interacts with magnetic fields in 2018. When a material passes into a superconducting state, it usually tries to remove the subsequently added magnetic field from its surface, but the magnetic field can again enter the sides immediately before it deteriorates rapidly. The influence or penetration of the site depends on the nature of the internal electron match.
Scientists succeeded in cooling up to -263 degrees without freezing water
The team used copper coils to detect changes in the magnetic properties of YPtBi while changing the temperature of the test medium. What they found was weird. When the material warmed up from absolute zero (0 Kelvin), the amount that the magnetic field could penetrate the material was increasing linearly, not exponentially, as opposed to the standard superconductors. they decided that it should be disguised as high spin particles.
Although this new type of superconductivity still requires incredibly low temperatures, discovery gives a new direction to the whole subject. Kadar We've been limited to 1/2 spin particles before, da says Hyunsoo Kim. 'But if we begin to think about higher spins, the topic of research on superconductivity is growing considerably and it's becoming more interesting. Man  The topic is still quite new and we have much to learn to understand exactly what is going on. The fact that we have a brand new superconducting material to test and measure something is very exciting for us to add something new to this 100-year research process
. ]Source :