Researchers at the University of Geneva and the University of Neuchâtel in Switzerland clarified the seeds' transformation into seedlings.
Swiss researchers discovered that during germination, the embryo in a seed should become a young seedling capable of photosynthesis in less than 48 hours . During this time, the embryo relies only on its rapidly consumed internal reserves. Functional chloroplasts, therefore, must produce cellular organelles that enable them to produce sugar in order to survive quickly.
The surprising reproduction and diversification of flowering plants in the terrestrial environment is mainly due to the emergence of seeds during evolution. Sleepless embryos are encapsulated and protected in a very durable construction that facilitates dispersion. At this stage it can not carry out photosynthesis and consume nutrient reserves stored in the seed during germination.
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The awakening of the embryo causes the bioproducts that produce sugar through proplastin and photosynthesis to separate into chloroplasts. "Thousands of different proteins have to be transferred to developing chloroplasts, and this process can only take place in the presence of a protein called TOC159, which, if it is missing, is consumed in plant chloroplasts and remains albino."
When external conditions become suitable for germination, the GA concentration in the seed is increased. Biologists have discovered that high concentrations of this hormone indirectly inhibit the degradation of TOC159 proteins. It can also be introduced into the membranes of the proplastids and at the same time import cargoes of photosynthetic proteins that escape the cellular waste stream.